The Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War will begin on April 12, 2011, the 150th anniversary of Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter.

The Civil War was the most traumatic event in American history. Not only did the country spilt apart, but over 600,000 lives were lost out of a total population of 32 million. If the same percentage of the U.S. population was killed in a war today, the total ead would exceed 5 million.

To commemorate this tremendous event in our history, The Madison Courier will periodically reprint articles from The Daily Courier.

We thank the members of the Jefferson County Civil War Roundtable for conducting the research for these articles...

•••

Madison Daily Courier

M.C. Garber, Editor

Friday Evening, Nov. 2, 1860

SPECULATION - There is no end to the speculations in regard to the effects of a dissolution of the Federal Union. If it could be accomplished peaceably, if the revolution should prove a bloodless revolution, the people of the North, with their steady, industrious habits, would soon accommodate themselves to the change. The inventive genius of the free States would soon enable her people to substitute flax for cotton fabrics and sorghum sugar and molasses for the sugar and molasses of Louisiana; and the free North would be as likely to offer better inducements to the South to trade with Great Britain or any other power.

The change would not be sudden in the North; the duties would be collected as usual, and the well (comparatively) organized mail facilities would hardly feel the change. Even the question of where the capital of the new Confederacy should be located, would not cause much difficulty. But why, if there is, as you say, Mr. Editor, no danger of a disruption of this Union, speculate about the effect of a dissolution? Because this question of disunion is forced upon us every four years; because the issue is now forced upon the people of disunion or Southern dictation, and the question might as well be met and adjusted now as to any time in the future.

We continue our speculations: When the Union is dissolved, where will the line dividing the free from the slave States be located? - Which will be the border States? The Gulf States now have Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and Maryland between them and Canada, and these States have Canada now near enough to them, and their people don't appreciated the value of a Southern Confederacy high enough to be willing to bring, Canada, practically, any nearer, or to make their States the battle ground for the contending armies of the North and South, in the event of a war.

This is almost an insurmountable difficulty. Then, the slave property of the border States would decrease in value, from the fact of greater insecurity. - The slave trade with Africa would be re-opened, and ships built and manned by Northern capital would crowd the Southern market with slaves. A Negro man now worth $2,000 in Virginia would depreciate in value to $350. We are not, an old man, but we remember as far back as 1824 - 16 years after the slave trade with the coast of Africa was closed - when Negro men, young and healthy, sold in Virginia for $300 to $400. Then, the system of slavery was cursed, and to get away to a "free State" was looked upon as a great boon of Providence.

Where would the capital of the new Southern Confederacy be located? Baltimore and Richmond, or Norfolk, are too far north. Baltimore is hardly a slave state city, Maryland a slave state; it would not do to locate the Southern capital there. (Richmond is liable to the same object, so is Norfolk.) Nor at Savannah, or Charleston, or New Orleans; the latter would be an unsafe location, because it is hardly probable the "Northern hordes" in the valleys of the Mississippi and Missouri - the great Northwest- would permit a Southern Confederacy to retrain the mouths of the Mississippi, nor could the planters of Louisiana do without the 3¢ a pound duty on sugar they now receive from the Federal tariff laws.

Besides all these difficulties, the insubordination of the slaves would paralyze a Southern Confederacy. The people of the South have been teaching their slaves, indirectly, but industriously, that the people of the free States are abolitionists, who seek to free them, to make them the equals of their masters. The great cause in the eyes of the slaves for the disruption of the Government, should it ever occur, would be on the part of their masters, to prevent the Northern abolitionists from freeing the slaves, and with Canada just over the Ohio River, it would be hard to hold them in subjection.

Out of the Union, the Southern States would soon decay, and become like Mexico - a prey to factions at home and oppression from abroad.

Madison Daily Courier

M.C. Garber, Editor

Wednesday Evening, Nov. 7, 1860

The most of the available space in our columns today is occupied with the election returns received by telegraph last night and at noon today. Republicans will not censure us for this, nor do we think the opposition (the Republican party is now the dominant, affirmative party of the country) ought to complain either. The boot is on the right leg at last! Four years ago, we had to give the result of the election then, though it hurt us as bad as the returns now hurt the Democrats. There never was before in any country just such a contest as that of yesterday. The divided Democracy did not fight Lincoln; they were intent only on destroying themselves. "Whom the gods wish to destroy they first make mad."

[From the Cincinnati Gazette of this morning, (7th inst.,) finished for The Madison Courier, by the Telegraph Operators.]

-

The Presidential Question Settled!

-

Glorious Republican Victory!

-

The People Triumphant!

-

Abraham Lincoln Our Next President!

•••

The returns which we publish this morning settle the question. Fusion is utterly routed. Southern threats and dictation have met with their proper response. The plot for throwing the election into the House has miserably failed. The great contest has closed with an unparalleled victory, surpassing even the most sanguine expectations of the Republicans. New York has gone for L. and H. by 30,000 to 40,000 majority - Pennsylvania 60,000 to 70,000. Every New England State is overwhelmingly Republican. The great North-West has recorded its vote unitedly the same way by unprecedented majorities. Probably every free State votes for Lincoln, while a positive Republican vote is cast in all the border slave States. The Electoral vote for Lincoln and Hamlin will not be less than 179, leaving California uncertain. The Democracy are annihilated, and a most glorious political revolution is achieved.

Let the country rejoice!